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Techniques for working in groups
 

Background

Groups are successful when they achieve their tasks, use an effective process and everyone finds the experience satisfying. People who are the most effective in groups notice what is happening. They then tune in to what people are feeling and make a response that moves the group forward. Most people supplement their intuition with a few favourite techniques. The following are some of mine. There are many more of them available.

Techniques

Working in pairs

Have people take turns listening to each other for five to fifteen minutes each way. This simple process is very useful at the beginning of a meeting or the discussion of a difficult topic. Start people off with some open questions (those that they can't answer "yes" or "no") to ask. These could be "What do you want from this meeting (or discussion)? What reservations do you have about it?" You could ask "What is your best thinking about X? What do you think we can do about it?" Have people go round the group and share their thinking while everyone else listens.

When you talk to an interested listener, your thoughts become clearer. You solve problems you cannot manage on your own. This is a response to the attention that the other person gives you. I have found working in pairs very useful when the meeting is stuck. If people are not listening and feelings are running high, ask them to spend just five minutes talking to the person next to them. They can talk about what is happening in the group and what should happen next.

It is vital that people stick to taking turns listening for say five minutes each way. A normal conversation is much less effective though sometimes more comfortable.

Process review

Most meetings are rather average. They stay average because there is no mechanism for improving them. Process review is a way of doing so.

Ask each person to comment on "What has been good about this meeting?" and "How can the meeting be even better next time?" I find it helpful to list the answers on a chart so everyone can see all of them. If you get a vague answer or one about the task then ask another question to get the person to think about the process. You can do the review half way through the meeting or at the end. You may not get completely honest answers straight away. The attention you give to the process will lead to gradual improvements. When people are comfortable about this work, they may consider more radical experiments like rotating the chairmanship. If you do this continue to use process review to extract learning for yourselves.

Clarifying Aims

When a group works together, they must agree what they are trying to do if they are to succeed. Groups rarely spend enough effort to clarify their aims. Some techniques help. These are drawn from Coverdale training. Coverdale call their approach "A systematic approach to getting things done".They derived it by observing what successful groups of people did when they were engaged in tasks.

Success criteria

The success criterion answers the questions "What do we want to have achieved concretely by the end of our time? What would success look like? One success criterion could be "A plan so we know what we will all do in the next month about X". Another could be "A proposal that we are confident the board will say "yes" to". It could be "A thorough discussion with everyone's views aired"

A Network of Aims

This powerful tool clarifies an aim by expanding it upwards by asking the question "Why" and downwards by asking the question "How". Answer the question "Why" "In order to....". This gives direction and is more useful than "because...". Work with the group to get agreement to the answers. The upward expansion displays the benefits of doing the work and the motivation of the participants. The downward expansion focuses very quickly on what needs to be done.

The systematic approach.

What?

How

Why?

Aims

Clarify by discussion the purpose and objective of the task. Ask what will we have if our task is successful. It might be a plan.

It usually helps to agree what you are trying to do and why before starting work.

Information

Collect or generate information that will help to achieve the aims. Information can be facts or ideas, experiences and feelings.

You will be more effective if the information relates to the task in hand.

What has to be done

Decide, in the light of the information you have what you need to do to achieve your aim.

This will move the process towards action.

Plan

Decide who will do what and when to achieve your aims. Clarify how make the actions concrete and assign people to them.

Without a plan action does not happen.

Act

Put the plan into effect.

So something happens "in the world" to achieve your aim.

Review

Look at how your plans have worked in practice. If all is well, then celebrate. If more needs to be done, revisit the systematic approach. Always take time to learn what you have done that has worked and how to improve it next time.

This is how to improve the task outcome and your effectiveness in working together.

Finally

Please use these tools freely to fit your own particular needs. Process work does not have to be serious. You can try things, see what happens and learn from the experience.

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Phone +44 (0)1707886553, or +44(0)7879861525 email nickheap43@gmail.com or Skype nickheap

Using these materials
I am entirely happy for you to use or draw on any these materials in any way you think will be helpful. I am keen to have my work, and the work of the people I have learned from, used.  

Language

The language on this site is correct UK English throughout. There are differences in spelling and meaning between UK and US English. The context should make the material understandable in the US.

Further Information

There are free articles, exercises, designs, book references and links to other sources about many aspects of personal, team, management and organisation development on this website. I will add other resources as I learn what you want.

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